Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

The Evolution of Information Management (IM)



– Manual drafting is the practice of creating drawings by hand. Manual drafting techniques have traditionally enabled the planning and communication of design ideas and construction information.

– As there is a very diverse range of information that may need to be communicated, there is a similarly wide range of drawing types.
Traditional draughting is heavily reliant on 100% paper-based information exchanges, so drawings were very slow to produce. Hard copies are generally stored in one location, which means information can easily be lost or damaged, which made it difficult to, manage, re-use and update. The management of traditional draughting information meant it is unsearchable and heavily reliant on manual filing systems.
2D Computer-Aided Design software offers a platform to design in two dimensions. Since 2D CAD does not allow for the creation of perspectives or scale, it is often used for drawing, sketching and drafting conceptual designs. 2D CAD is often used for floor plan development, building permit drawing and building inspection planning.
3-dimensional computer-aided design is a technology that engineers, product developers and designers use to create functional, virtual prototypes of three-dimensional objects. With 3D CAD, designers can dynamically create and modify every detail of a product, part or assembly
Typically, CAD software is used to design an object in 3D, create 2D schematics of that object for manufacturing, and then make edits to the design. While 3D modelling is mostly used for artistic and entertainment industries and BIM is specifically for designing buildings, CAD can be used within almost any industry.

• With 3D modelling production was quicker and more accurate than traditional draughting
• CAD is still reliant on paper-based information exchanges
• CAD Information was still manually produced and delivered as static documentation
• CAD limits Collaboration and coordination remained an issues
Parametric modelling (or parametric design) is where Information is linked via algorithms in a digital parametric structured model so that when a change is made, components are updated automatically in line with specified parameters. The geometry refreshes each time a parameter’s value is updated.
So, when we talk about assets, what do we mean, exactly? 
The term asset means many things to many people, but by definition, an asset is anything that adds value by supporting business objectives.
Usually, in the built environment this refers to a physical asset, but the same goes for a virtual asset, information has value!

An asset could be: 
a road, or a bridge which connects with it.
a building, or part of a building such as a door or electrical system.
Or it could be an entire complex of buildings. 
It could be an entire rail network or a single piece of track.

It is useful to understand the concept of a physical and virtual asset and the relationship between them. We refer to the physical asset simply as ‘asset’ and the virtual asset as an ‘information model’.
We are all familiar with the twin topology and the information value chain.  Data drives insights that lead to better decisions on interventions optimised around outcomes.  Getting this value chain connected to our various tools through the entire project flow will lead to supercharged efficiency and enhanced outcomes.
Tutors – Non-Graphical
  • Payment Shedule
  • Schedules
  • Specifications
  • Prelims
  • Planning Appointment
  • JCT Contracts
  • Comms Matrix
  • Op Restrictions
  • Plan of Works
  • Material Properties
  • PMP
  • Structural Calcs
  • Quality Plan

Industry – Documents

  • Quality Assurance File
  • 2D Drawings
  • Health & Safety File
  • Specifications
  • Permits
  • Programme
  • Schedules
  • Toolbox Talks
  • Induction Records
There are three components of an Information Model which are structured and managed in such a way that they can be coordinated effectively with each other.

A non-graphical representation of an asset is generally produced in the form of asset data, representing the asset in its current state. Asset data reflects the physical and functional characteristics of the physical asset, such as its size, cost; performance criteria; materials; weight; serial number, location etc. For asset data to be used effectively, it must be structured in such a way that it is machine-readable, and is typically stored in a database.

A graphical representation of an asset is generally produced in the form of a collection of graphical models which, when combined, represent the physical asset in its current state.

Given that assets are three dimensional, graphical models are typically produced in three dimensions. However, depending on the level of graphical detail needed, a two-dimensional graphical model may be sufficient, particularly in the early concept stages or for linear assets, such as roads and railways.

For graphical models to be used effectively, they must be structured and linked in such a way that when combined, they fit together. This is known formally as federation.

Documents – Records of an asset are generally produced in the form of documentation, representing the asset at any given moment in time.
Collectively, they provide a historical record of the asset’s life and can include documents such as reports; drawings; photos; visualisations and animations etc.

Documents should be considered out of date the moment they are produced, however, it is likely that there will always be a need for this type of documentation, due to legal, regulatory and contractual requirements.