Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

The Evolution of Information Management

Manual drafting is the practice of creating drawings by hand. Manual drafting techniques have traditionally enabled the planning and communication of design ideas and construction information.

As there is a very diverse range of information that may need to be communicated, there is a similarly wide range of drawing types.
Traditional draughting is heavily reliant on 100% paper-based information exchanges, so drawings were very slow to produce.

Hard copies are generally stored in one location, which means information can easily be lost or damaged, which made it difficult to, manage, re-use and update. The management of traditional draughting information meant it is unsearchable and heavily reliant on manual filing systems.
2D Computer-Aided Design software offers a platform to design in two dimensions. Since 2D CAD does not allow for the creation of perspectives or scale, it is often used for drawing, sketching and drafting conceptual designs. 2D CAD is often used for floor plan development, building permit drawing and building inspection planning.
3D computer-aided design is a technology that engineers, product developers and designers use to create functional, virtual prototypes of three-dimensional objects. With 3D CAD, designers can dynamically create and modify every detail of a product, part or assembly.
Typically, CAD software is used to design an object in 3D, create 2D schematics of that object for manufacturing, and then make edits to the design. While 3D modelling is mostly used for artistic and entertainment industries and BIM is specifically for designing buildings, CAD can be used within almost any industry.

• With 3D modelling production was quicker and more accurate than traditional draughting
• CAD is still reliant on paper-based information exchanges
• CAD Information was still manually produced and delivered as static documentation
• CAD limits Collaboration and coordination remained an issues
Parametric modelling (or parametric design) is where Information is linked via algorithms in a digital parametric structured model so that when a change is made, components are updated automatically in line with specified parameters. The geometry refreshes each time a parameter’s value is updated.
So, when we talk about assets, what do we mean, exactly? 
The term asset means many things to many people, but by definition, an asset is anything that adds value by supporting business objectives.

Usually, in the built environment this refers to a physical asset, but the same goes for a virtual asset, information has value!

An asset could be: 
a road, or a bridge which connects with it.
a building, or part of a building such as a door or electrical system.
Or it could be an entire complex of buildings. 
It could be an entire rail network or a single piece of track.

It is useful to understand the concept of a physical and virtual asset and the relationship between them. We refer to the physical asset simply as ‘asset’ and the virtual asset as an ‘information model’.
Twins come in many forms:

Fraternal, identical but what about digital?
A digital twin is a realistic digital representation of something physical such as a railway network or a whole city. These twins help us to build modern infrastructure and to get more from what we already have. Connecting the digital and physical makes infrastructure smart.

Changes and new ideas are tested on digital twins to model the effects that they could have on the real world. Information gathered from buildings and infrastructure is used by digital twins to help them run more efficiently. Testing on the digital before the physical means we can take actions that save time and money and minimise disruption.
The Sydney Opera House is a fascinating building, the design of the building was started in 1959 and took 14 years to complete, 10 years longer than expected. It was also estimated to cost $102 million Australian dollars with the original budget estimated at $7 million.

The Opera House is still going to consistent changes, new restaurants have been installed in the recent years they’ve recently also created a huge logistics and storage area under the Opera House which sits below sea level.

The Opera House itself has around 1800 shows a year in six different permanent venues, this is around double the amount of any other performance space in the world it’s because of this that the operation of the building and keeping it running is so vital.
The Opera House has had a long history with bills starting with the air conditioning contractor back in 1960 creating a physical model of the site in order to coordinate their air conditioning ventilation system throughout a very complex building.

In recent years there have been a number of surveys and models of the Opera House created with the most recent model being created by an in-house team who controls this information today.

BIM Academy was approached to support the Opera House in developing a BIM for FM system that would utilise the model of the Opera House to support and visualise the maintenance of the building on a day to day basis.
Sydney Opera House digital twin.
There are three components of a Information Model which are structured and managed in such a way that they can be coordinated effectively with each other.

A non-graphical representation of an asset is generally produced in the form of asset data, representing the asset in its current state. Asset data reflects the physical and functional characteristics of the physical asset, such as its size, cost; performance criteria; materials; weight; serial number, location etc. For asset data to be used effectively, it must be structured in such a way that it is machine-readable, and is typically stored in a database.

A graphical representation of an asset is generally produced in the form of a collection of graphical models that, when combined, represent the physical asset in its current state.

Given that assets are three dimensional, graphical models are typically produced in three dimensions. However, depending on the level of graphical detail needed, a two-dimensional graphical model may be sufficient, particularly in the early concept stages or for linear assets, such as roads and railways.

For graphical models to be used effectively, they must be structured and linked in such a way that when combined, they fit together. This is known formally as “federation”.

Documents – Records of an asset are generally produced in the form of documentation, representing the asset at any given moment in time.
Collectively, they provide a historical record of the asset’s life and can include documents such as reports; drawings; photos; visualisations and animations etc.

Documents should be considered out of date the moment they are produced, however, it is likely that there will always be a need for this type of documentation, due to legal, regulatory and contractual requirements. 
Both the receiver and provider may need information. Both require time and knowledge.

Why – Need data for lots of purposes, at all stages of the Asset’s life (Answer questions relating to the asset, location, satisfy legal and H&S responsibilities, does it meet the brief)

When – Once agreed, Receivers and providers must work collaboratively to establish when data needs to be exchanged (fixed date, milestones, frequency or a trigger event like maintenance event)

How – Once the why and when have been established, receivers and providers can then work collaboratively to establish how the data needs to be exchanged (the format, structure and naming, the means by which the data is to be exchanged)

What – Finally the receiver and provider must identify the ‘minimum’ amount of data needed to satisfy each purpose and opportunity, and for reuse in other capacities (What non-graphical, graphical and documents are needed).
Procuring – To manage the asset effectively, they will need access to a range of organisational information to be confident the asset will meet business needs at the right price.
Designing – To design an optimal solution, they will need technical information such as associated whole-life financial and carbon cost and energy consumption of the assets so that you can use the skills effectively to select the best design option.
Manufacturing – To manufacture products and materials in accordance with the design specification, they will need information to ensure they meet the required performance and testing criteria.
Assembling – To assemble the asset with minimal defects or delays, they need information to ensure each component is assembled correctly and in the correct order.
Operating – To operate the asset as intended, they need information to ensure their team receives the appropriate training on standard operation and emergency procedures.
Maintaining – To extend the asset’s life, they need information to make informed decisions about maintenance interventions’ benefits, costs, and timings.
Decommissioning – To decommission the asset safely, they need information about the design or construction of the asset plus any changes that have occurred in its lifetime.
Recycling – To minimize the number of materials that go to the landfill, they need the information to identify what materials can and cannot be recycled or repurposed.
Delivery Phase – Those involved in the procurement, design, construction and/or commissioning of built assets.

Operational Phase – Those involved in delivering asset management activities, including operations and maintenance.
Accurate as-built information is required to operate, maintain, and adapt existing buildings and infrastructure.

Accuracy is how close you are to the true value

Precision is how close two or more measurements are to each other

If you are precise, that doesn’t necessarily mean you are accurate. However, if you are consistently accurate, you are also precise.
Estimating data is data that helps construction managers better understand a project before it begins. Project estimators look at this data for trends in bid wins and cost estimates. This helps managers understand their Tendering/hit rate. Tendering/hit rate is the ratio of bids placed on construction projects to the number of Tenders won. Using the Tender/hit rate makes estimating data vital in the sales and discovery process. When we look back at tenders/hit rates from years past we get insight into how many tenders need to be placed on projects in order to achieve the desired results.
Building Information Modelling Data or BIM Data, is a 2D or 3D rendering of a building that is useful across an entire construction firm. The construction data in a BIM file can be utilized by the design team, contractors, construction engineers and owners. BIM data promotes collaboration across an organization because it gives each team a perfect representation of the site. Employing simulation tools keeps construction firms in control of their work. BIM construction data helps prevent conflict before it happens by coordinating all steps and processes of a given job.
Operational Project Data includes all construction data in relation to the execution of a project. Resources, logistics and productivity are major aspects of operational data. Having insights into resources enable a firm to know what materials, equipment and labour are necessary to complete a job. Logistical data includes all Requests for Information (RFI), submittals and deliveries. Having access to this data on the job site maximizes efficiency. Financial data allows a firm to predetermine the overall cost of a project by knowing the price of every aspect of it.
Financial Data is comprised of all aspects of a construction project and the cost amount associated with them. As a project progresses, construction cost becomes more of a factor. Construction data provides an accounting team with a clear vision of the financial implications. Anticipating common roadblocks creates room for better budgeting practices, ensuring that projects aren’t postponed due to financial constraints. Project managers and the finance team will have the same understanding of the budget and be able to anticipate needs before they arise.